Pracownia Badań Rentgenostrukturalnych -- Aparatura [en].

PANalytical X-ray diffractometer, PW 3040/60

The second device is a PANalytical X'Pert Pro MPD, powered by a Philips PW3040/60 X-ray generator and equipped with an X'Celerator detector.

The X-ray sources are: the 2.2kW ceramic X-ray EMPYREAN TUBE with Cu anode, and a 1.8kW Co ceramic EMPYREAN TUBE.

The X’Celerator is an ultra-fast X-ray detector that uses RTMS (Real Time Multiple Strip) technology.  It operates as an array of a hundred channels which can simultaneously count X-rays diffracted from a sample over the range of max. 2.122 ˚2θ.  The X’Celerator produces high quality diffraction data in a significantly shorter time than an older proportional gas detector.


Micro-diffraction analyses can be performed to investigate a small amount of sample (a few micrograms depending on the density and porosity of the analyzed powder) or a selected spot on a sample. With the available mono-capillary collimators (135 mm long, 0.1 mm diameter at the end of the; 135mmx0,05mm and 135mmx0,02mm), it is possible to produce an incident X-ray beam with a spot size of ca. 100, 50 and 20 µm.


The Anton Paar HTK-16 Chamber allows non-ambient X-ray studies with direct sample heating.  Measurements can be performed from room temperature to 1600°C in air, inert gas or vacuum.


The main applications of the PANalytical X'Pert Pro in the Laboratory are:

Phase analysis of samples with flat or irregular surfaces.

Quantitative phase analysis.

Crystallographic and Rietveld analyses

Analysis of small spots on mineral samples (micro-diffraction)

Determination of changes in the crystal structure under variable environmental conditions (Anton Paar HTK-16 Chamber)

High-throughput X-ray diffraction automated analyses of large number of samples (sample changer x15)

Philips X-ray diffractometer PW 3710

The Philips (currently PANalytical) XRD system consists of: PW3710 control electronics,  PW 1830 High Tension generator, PW 3020 goniometer, stationary 2kW Cu tube, graphite monochromator and proportional  detector. The system is online computerized with digital data processing capacity. Routine search/match is run on a separate computer using HighScore+ software and the ICDD and ICSD databases.